The Guardian May 2, 2001

The Royal Commission, ten years on: Black deaths, white heat

by Peter Mac

Ten years ago the Royal Commission into the deaths of Aboriginal and Torres 
Strait Islander people in custody released its final report. The work of 
the Commission, one of the most comprehensive and detailed inquiries in 
Australia's history, cost millions of dollars and took four years to 
complete. The report revealed a shocking state of affairs in Australia's 
jails and produced shock waves within Australia and around the world.

The shock waves were repeated in 1997, with the release of the report into 
the generations of stolen Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. 
The two inquiries galvanised the Australian community as a whole and led to 
last year's magnificent nation-wide marches for reconciliation.

But ten years down the track from the Royal Commission there has been 
little or no progress. According to Geoff Clark, Chairman of the Aboriginal 
and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC), the number of deaths of 
Aboriginal people in police cells has fallen slightly, but the percentage 
dying in custody has remained much the same.

The Royal Commission found that Aboriginal people were no more likely to 
commit crimes than other people, but that they were much more likely to be 
arrested for trivial offences and to be jailed rather than cautioned.

The percentage being imprisoned, compared to the percentage of Aboriginal 
people in the community, remains disproportionately high and has actually 

The life expectancy of Aboriginal people is now 20 years less than for the 
rest of the community.

The unemployment rate has risen to 50 percent, excluding those enrolled in 
the "work-for-the-dole" scheme. Fifty percent of Aboriginal incomes now 
fall below the poverty line.

Tragically, despite the recent attention paid to the Stolen Generations, 
the number of Aboriginal children imprisoned or placed in state care has 

Since 1991 many Aboriginal leaders have maintained that the 1991 Inquiry's 
recommendation of self-determination for Aboriginal people should be 

But State and Federal Governments consistently reject this approach and use 
the statements of ATSIC leaders concerning the "welfare trap" to promote 
the idea that Aboriginal people should just "get off welfare" altogether.

However, no schemes that provide regular work and the possibility of living 
normal lives with housing, education and health services are proposed.

The Victorian Government is about to introduce laws against racial 
vilification "which affect many groups as well as Indigenous people", but 
all States have been slow to implement such legislation.

The Commission recommended the use of alternate sentencing regimes in 
dealing with Aboriginal people charged with offences, with jail as a last 

In WA and the NT, however, such approaches have been arrogantly dismissed 
in favour of mandatory sentencing, with tragic consequences for Aboriginal 

Referring to non-indigenous Australians who marched for reconciliation, 
Geoff Clark commented that: "Their attention and their support  their 
white heat, if you like  must be harnessed to point the way to an 
acceptance by our national government of self-determination.

"We want a commitment from government that practices which discriminate 
against our people will be eradicated from their justice systems, their 
education systems and their welfare regimes.

"We want the resources to enable communities to find ways out of the 
welfare traps they are caught in. We expect to be central to government 
decision-making, not to be kept on the margins.

"I challenge all of our political leaders to show the courage required to 
ensure the Royal Commission recommendations are implemented in full", said 
Geoff Clark.

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